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Multilevel Modeling Of Social Problems


Author : Robert B Smith
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-02-26


Download Multilevel Modeling Of Social Problems written by Robert B Smith and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2011-02-26 with Social Science categories.


Uniquely focusing on intersections of social problems, multilevel statistical modeling, and causality; the substantively and methodologically integrated chapters of this book clarify basic strategies for developing and testing multilevel linear models (MLMs), and drawing casual inferences from such models. These models are also referred to as hierarchical linear models (HLMs) or mixed models. The statistical modeling of multilevel data structures enables researchers to combine contextual and longitudinal analyses appropriately. But researchers working on social problems seldom apply these methods, even though the topics they are studying and the empirical data call for their use. By applying multilevel modeling to hierarchical data structures, this book illustrates how the use of these methods can facilitate social problems research and the formulation of social policies. It gives the reader access to working data sets, computer code, and analytic techniques, while at the same time carefully discussing issues of causality in such models. This book innovatively: •Develops procedures for studying social, economic, and human development. • Uses typologies to group (i.e., classify or nest) the level of random macro-level factors. • Estimates models with Poisson, binomial, and Gaussian end points using SAS's generalized linear mixed models (GLIMMIX) procedure. • Selects appropriate covariance structures for generalized linear mixed models. • Applies difference-in-differences study designs in the multilevel modeling of intervention studies. •Calculates propensity scores by applying Firth logistic regression to Goldberger-corrected data. • Uses the Kenward-Rogers correction in mixed models of repeated measures. • Explicates differences between associational and causal analysis of multilevel models. • Consolidates research findings via meta-analysis and methodological critique. •Develops criteria for assessing a study's validity and zone of causality. Because of its social problems focus, clarity of exposition, and use of state-of-the-art procedures; policy researchers, methodologists, and applied statisticians in the social sciences (specifically, sociology, social psychology, political science, education, and public health) will find this book of great interest. It can be used as a primary text in courses on multilevel modeling or as a primer for more advanced texts.

Statistics In Musicology


Author : Jan Beran
language : en
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date : 2003-07-15


Download Statistics In Musicology written by Jan Beran and has been published by CRC Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2003-07-15 with Mathematics categories.


Traditionally, statistics and music are not generally associated with each other. However, ...intelligent... music software, computer digitization, and other advanced techniques and technologies have precipitated the need for standard statistical models to answer basic musicological questions. Statistics In Musicology presents an unprecedented introduction to statistical and mathematical methods developed for use in music analysis, music theory, and performance theory. It explores concrete methods for data generation and numerical encoding of musical data and serves as a practical reference for a wide audience, including statisticians, mathematicians, musicologists, and musicians.

Principal Component Analysis


Author : I.T. Jolliffe
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2002-10-01


Download Principal Component Analysis written by I.T. Jolliffe and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2002-10-01 with Mathematics categories.


Principal component analysis is central to the study of multivariate data. This book includes core material, research and a wide range of applications. It is suitable for researchers in statistics and for those who use principal component analysis. It requires some knowledge of matrix algebra.

Second Order Effects In Elasticity Plasticity And Fluid Dynamics


Author : Markus Reiner
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1964


Download Second Order Effects In Elasticity Plasticity And Fluid Dynamics written by Markus Reiner and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1964 with Elastic solids categories.




Second Order Turbulence Simulation Of The Rotating Buoyant Recirculating Convection In The Czochralski Crystal Melt


Author : Joseph Raymond Ristorcelli
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1991


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Residuated Lattices An Algebraic Glimpse At Substructural Logics


Author : Nikolaos Galatos
language : en
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-04-25


Download Residuated Lattices An Algebraic Glimpse At Substructural Logics written by Nikolaos Galatos and has been published by Elsevier this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2007-04-25 with Mathematics categories.


The book is meant to serve two purposes. The first and more obvious one is to present state of the art results in algebraic research into residuated structures related to substructural logics. The second, less obvious but equally important, is to provide a reasonably gentle introduction to algebraic logic. At the beginning, the second objective is predominant. Thus, in the first few chapters the reader will find a primer of universal algebra for logicians, a crash course in nonclassical logics for algebraists, an introduction to residuated structures, an outline of Gentzen-style calculi as well as some titbits of proof theory - the celebrated Hauptsatz, or cut elimination theorem, among them. These lead naturally to a discussion of interconnections between logic and algebra, where we try to demonstrate how they form two sides of the same coin. We envisage that the initial chapters could be used as a textbook for a graduate course, perhaps entitled Algebra and Substructural Logics. As the book progresses the first objective gains predominance over the second. Although the precise point of equilibrium would be difficult to specify, it is safe to say that we enter the technical part with the discussion of various completions of residuated structures. These include Dedekind-McNeille completions and canonical extensions. Completions are used later in investigating several finiteness properties such as the finite model property, generation of varieties by their finite members, and finite embeddability. The algebraic analysis of cut elimination that follows, also takes recourse to completions. Decidability of logics, equational and quasi-equational theories comes next, where we show how proof theoretical methods like cut elimination are preferable for small logics/theories, but semantic tools like Rabin's theorem work better for big ones. Then we turn to Glivenko's theorem, which says that a formula is an intuitionistic tautology if and only if its double negation is a classical one. We generalise it to the substructural setting, identifying for each substructural logic its Glivenko equivalence class with smallest and largest element. This is also where we begin investigating lattices of logics and varieties, rather than particular examples. We continue in this vein by presenting a number of results concerning minimal varieties/maximal logics. A typical theorem there says that for some given well-known variety its subvariety lattice has precisely such-and-such number of minimal members (where values for such-and-such include, but are not limited to, continuum, countably many and two). In the last two chapters we focus on the lattice of varieties corresponding to logics without contraction. In one we prove a negative result: that there are no nontrivial splittings in that variety. In the other, we prove a positive one: that semisimple varieties coincide with discriminator ones. Within the second, more technical part of the book another transition process may be traced. Namely, we begin with logically inclined technicalities and end with algebraically inclined ones. Here, perhaps, algebraic rendering of Glivenko theorems marks the equilibrium point, at least in the sense that finiteness properties, decidability and Glivenko theorems are of clear interest to logicians, whereas semisimplicity and discriminator varieties are universal algebra par exellence. It is for the reader to judge whether we succeeded in weaving these threads into a seamless fabric.

Second Order Effects In Elasticity Plasticity And Fluid Dynamics


Author : International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1964


Download Second Order Effects In Elasticity Plasticity And Fluid Dynamics written by International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1964 with Elasticity categories.