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The Biology And Pathology Of Innate Immunity Mechanisms


Author : Yona Keisari
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2000-06-30


Download The Biology And Pathology Of Innate Immunity Mechanisms written by Yona Keisari and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2000-06-30 with Medical categories.


In recent years increased scientific attention has been given to immediate defense mechanisms based on non-clonal recognition of microbial components. These mechanisms constitute the innate immunity arm of the body s defense. Identification of pathogens by these mechanisms involves primarily receptors recognizing sugar moieties of various microorganisms. Innate immunity based mechanisms are essential for the existence of multicellular organisms. They are evolutionarily conserved and designed to provide immediate protection against microbial pathogens to eradicate infection. Activation of innate immunity is crucial for transition to specific immunity and for its orientation, and to assist the specific immune response in the recognition of pathogens and their destruction. Innate immunity is regularly involved in the arrest of bacterial, mycotic, viral and parasitic infections, giving the specific immune response time to become effective. It becomes critically essential in immunocompromised patients who fail to mount specific immune responses due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies as a result of chemotherapy, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs, or HIV infection. The Innate Immunity arsenal constitutes polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes, mast cells, the complement system, Natural Killer cells, antimicrobial peptides, and presumably a subset of T lymphocytes with TCRl receptors.

The Innate Mind


Author : Peter Carruthers
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2005-07-14


Download The Innate Mind written by Peter Carruthers and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2005-07-14 with Psychology categories.


This is the first volume of a projected three-volume set on the subject of innateness. The extent to which the mind is innate is one of the central questions in the human sciences, with important implications for many surrounding debates. By bringing together the top nativist scholars in philosophy, psychology, and allied disciplines these volumes provide a comprehensive assessment of nativist thought and a definitive reference point for future nativist inquiry. The Innate Mind: Structure and Content, concerns the fundamental architecture of the mind, addressing such question as: What capacities, processes, representations, biases, and connections are innate? How do these innate elements feed into a story about the development of our mature cognitive capacities, and which of them are shared with other members of the animal kingdom? The editors have provided an introduction giving some of the background to debates about innateness and introducing each of the subsequent essays, as well as a consolidated bibliography that will be a valuable reference resource for all those interested in this area. The volume will be of great importance to all researchers and students interested in the fundamental nature and powers of the human mind. Together, the three volumes in the series will provide the most intensive and richly cross-disciplinary investigation of nativism ever undertaken. They point the way toward a synthesis of nativist work that promises to provide a new understanding of our minds and their place in the natural order.

Innate Ideas


Author : Stephen P. Stich
language : en
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Release Date : 1975


Download Innate Ideas written by Stephen P. Stich and has been published by Univ of California Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1975 with Philosophy categories.




The Innate Capacity


Author : Robert K. C. Forman
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 1997-12-04


Download The Innate Capacity written by Robert K. C. Forman and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1997-12-04 with Religion categories.


This book is the sequel to Robert Forman's well-received collection, The Problem of Pure Consciousness (Oxford, 1990). The essays in the earlier volume argued that some mystical experiences do not seem to be formed or shaped by the language system--a thesis that stands in sharp contradistinction to deconstruction in general and to the "constructivist" school of mysticism in particular, which holds that all mysticism is the product of a cultural and linguistic process. In The Innate Capacity, Forman and his colleagues put forward a hypothesis about the formative causes of these "pure consciousness" experiences. All of the contributors agree that mysticism is the result of an innate human capacity, rather than a learned, socially conditioned and constructive process. The innate capacity is understood in several different ways. Many perceive it as an expression of human consciousness per se, awareness itself. Some hold that consciousness should be understood as a built-in link to some hidden, transcendent aspect of the world, and that a mystical experience is the experience of that inherent connectedness. Another thesis that appears frequently is that mystics realize this innate capacity through a process of releasing the hold of the ego and the conceptual system. The contributors here look at mystical experience as it is manifested in a variety of religious and cultural settings, including Hindu Yoga, Buddhism, Sufism, and medieval Christianity. Taken together, the essays constitute an important contribution to the ongoing debate about the nature of human consciousness and mystical experience and its relation to the social and cultural contexts in which it appears.

The Innate Immune System


Author : Masaru Taniguchi
language : en
Publisher: Elsevier Science Health Science Division
Release Date : 2005


Download The Innate Immune System written by Masaru Taniguchi and has been published by Elsevier Science Health Science Division this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2005 with Medical categories.


These conference proceedings contain the 3 main topics of the symposium: receptor signaling and function; interfaces between innate and acquired immunity; and manipulation of the innate immune system.

Trends In Innate Immunity


Author : Arne Egesten
language : en
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2008


Download Trends In Innate Immunity written by Arne Egesten and has been published by Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2008 with Medical categories.


The last decade has witnessed the delineation of innate immunity - a new area which has revolutionized our understanding of host-parasite interactions and their impact on defense mechanisms in infectious and noninfectious diseases. This volume of the book series 'Contributions to Microbiology' provides an update of the current knowledge of this expanding field of research and highlights some of its most important aspects. In eleven state-of-the-art articles, eminent international experts in the field address topics such as the innate immune system in mammals and insects, microbial protein ligands, antimicrobial peptides, complement, antibacterial chemokines, the role of neutrophils and monocytes, oxidative innate immune defenses and the effect of aging on innate immunity. The book will be a valuable resource for microbiologists, immunologists, students, scientists of other related disciplines, and clinicians with an interest in infectious or immunological diseases.

Target Pattern Recognition In Innate Immunity


Author : Uday Kishore
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-01-01


Download Target Pattern Recognition In Innate Immunity written by Uday Kishore and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2010-01-01 with Medical categories.


Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events. The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids—and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q—to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms—to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells. In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system—and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.